作者:2021年6月大学英语六级阅读专项练习及解析 来源:未知 2021-05-21   阅读:




  buddhism is the only important foreign religious influence that has become part and parcel of chinese life. the influence is so deep that we now speak of children’s dolls, and sometimes the children themselves, as“ little buddha ”, and the empress dowager herself was addressed as“old buddha”. the goddess of mercy and the laughing buddha have become chinese household words. buddhism has affected our language , our food, our arts, our sculpture and directly inspired the characteristic pagoda . it has stimulated our literature and our whole world of imagination. the little monkish figure, with his bald head and his gray robes, forms an intimate part of any panorama of society, and buddhist temples, rather than those of confucius, are the center of the town and village life, where the elders gather to decide on village matters and annual celebrations. its monks and nuns penetrate the privacies of chinese households, on all occasions of births, deaths and weddings, as no other persons are allowed to do, and hardly a widow or virgin can be seduced , according to the chinese novels, without the help of these religious figures.

  buddhism has conquered china as a philosophy and as a religion, as a philosophy for the scholars and as a religion for the common people. whereas confucianism has only a philosophy of moral conduct, buddhism possesses a logical method, a metaphysics , and a theory of knowledge . besides, it is fortunate in having a high tradition of scholarship in the translations of buddhist classics, and the language of these translations, so succinct and often so distinguished by a beautiful lucidity of language and reasoning, cannot but attract scholars with a philosophical bias. hence buddhism has always enjoyed a prestige among the chinese scholars, which so far christianity has failed to achieve.


  Ⅰ. fill in each blank with the proper form of the words given in the brackets :

  1. the injury to their key player could be a________ ( decide ) factor in the basketball game .

  2. the president is paying a ________ ( privacy) visit to europe.

  3. she had the good ________ ( fortunate) to be free from the disease.

  4. some ________ ( influence) politicians change the world chaotic situation.

  5. the offer of a high salary and a free house is very________ ( seduce) . 6. he is a truly ________ ( religion ) man who goes to church every day.

  Ⅱ. answer the following question in your own words :

  why can buddhism win the favor of chinese scholars?



  1. decisive / deciding 2. private 3 . fortune 4. influential 5 . seductive 6. religious


  because buddhism possesses a logical method, a metaphysics, and a theory of knowledge, in addition, buddhist classics have been translated into brief and beautiful chinese .



  佛 教是一个成为中国人生活重要组成部分的重要外国教派。佛教对中国影响巨 大, 现在我们常常将一些孩子的玩具娃娃称为“ 小菩萨”, 有时甚至将孩子也称为“ 小菩 萨”, 我们还将慈禧太后称为“ 老菩萨( 老佛爷) ”。观音菩萨和弥勒佛已经成为中国家喻户 晓的名字。佛教影响了我们的语言、饮食、艺术、雕塑, 还直接给我们灵感, 建造起佛教特有 的宝塔。佛教促进了我国文学的发展, 刺激了我们整个想象空间。留着光头、穿着灰色长 袍的小和尚形象已成为中国社会全景图中不可缺少的画面。佛教寺庙成为中国乡镇人民 生活的中心, 在寺庙里村中老人聚集在一起对村里事务和每年举行的庆祝活动做出决定, 而儒教的寺庙则不能发挥如此大的作用。佛教里的和尚和尼姑已经渗透到中国家庭的日 常生活中, 他们出现在孩子出生、葬礼和婚礼等所有重要场合里, 而和尚和尼姑在这些场合 的作用是他人所无法替代的。在中国传统小说里, 如果没有这些宗教人物的帮助, 几乎没 有一个寡妇或处 女不会被人引诱而误入歧途。

  佛教作为哲学和宗教征服了中国。作为哲学, 佛教赢得了中国学者的心; 作为宗教, 佛 教则获得了平民百姓的支持。儒教只具有道德行为的哲学, 而佛教则拥有逻辑方法、形而 上学理论和一整套认识学说。另外, 幸运的是, 在翻译佛家经典著作时, 中国具有优良的学 术传统, 翻译过来的语言简洁明快, 经 文中的语言和推理因美妙易懂而卓尔不群, 即使对哲 学抱有偏见的学者也会被其吸引。因此, 佛教在中国学者中一直享有较高的威望, 这一点 基 督教至今还未能达到。


  儒、道、佛是中国传统思想文化的三大支柱, 三教的融合一直是中国思想文化发展的主 流。强调“无我”的印度佛教与中国本土文化在冲突中融合, 在融合中发展, 最终以“ 人人 072 皆有佛性”的思想在中国得到了广泛流传。遍布各地香火鼎盛的庙宇显示了佛教在中国的 勃勃生命力。佛教虽是外来的, 但中国的政治、经济、文化等各个方面的发展无不受到佛教 文化的影响。看来这外来的和尚是真的会念经。


  1. 佛教。佛教与基 督教( christianity) 、伊斯兰教( islam) 并列为世界三大宗教。公元前6 至5 世纪释迦牟尼( sakyamuni) 创建于古印度, 西汉末年传入我国, 隋唐是其繁荣鼎盛 期。

  2. 重要部分, 主要部分, 如: human needs should be part and parcel of the whole planning and design process. ( 人的需要应该是整个计划和设计过程最基本的部分。

  3. dowager n. 继承亡夫爵位( 或遗产) 的遗孀。文中的empress dowager 是指“慈禧太后”。

  4. the goddess of mercy 指“ 观音菩萨”, the laughing buddha 则是指“ 弥勒佛”, 这两个佛教 的神仙已为广大中国人所熟悉。buddha n. 佛, 菩萨。

  5. 宝塔。塔起源于印度, 最初的汉译音称浮屠或塔婆, 最初是用来收藏佛祖释迦牟尼舍利 的。释迦牟尼死后, 他的弟子们把他的舍利分别埋葬在许多地方, 建塔作为标志。后来, 一些得道高僧死了, 也建塔纪念。中国的塔有两类, 一类是佛塔, 一类是供来观赏、美化 风景的。

  6. 对??作出决定或决议, 如: decide on a course of action ( 决定行动步骤) 。

  7. metaphysics n. 形而上学( 指哲学中探究宇宙根本原理的一个部分, 也称玄学) 。


  most of the people who lived near jerusalem were jewish. the romans were pagans , but they allowed the jews to practice their faith and did not force them to worship roman gods. about a. d. 30, a holy man named jesus began to attract a following in the roman province of judea. judea is part of the modern nation of israel. his followers came to believe that jesus was the son of the god of the jews and that he performed miracles. the followers of jesus angered roman authorities because they refused to follow either jewish or roman laws. the authorities arrested and crucified jesus. three days after his execution, jesus followers said they saw him rise from the dead.

  the followers of jesus called him christ. christ is a greek word that means“ chosen one”, because they believed he was chosen by god to be his messenger. in time the followers of jesus became known as christians. the christians taught that people’s sins would be forgiven if they became christian. this message was not successful with many jews, but many pagans responded to the idea of christian salvation.

  many fervent believers carried the message of jesus throughout the roman empire. one of the most successful was a greek-speaking jew named paul of tarsus, known to christians as saint paul. as a young man, he helped to persecute christians, but one day he had a vision in which he believed jesus spoke to him from heaven. paul spent the rest of his life thinking and writing about christianity and winning new converts to the faith. through the persistence of paul and other christian missionaries, small christian communities developed throughout the roman empire.

  the first christians believed that jesus would quickly return to earth, so there was no need to create any written records of his life . after about thirty years, christians began to see a need to write down an account of the life and wisdom of jesus. about fifty years after jesus died, christians combined the stories of the life and wisdom of jesus into four books known as gospels. gospel means“ good news”. the holy book of christianity is known as the bible and has two parts. the old testament consists of the sacred writings of the jewish people and was written long before the time of jesus. the new testament of the bible includes the gospels, along with letters written by paul and other christian writers. the bible has been translated into more than 1, 000 languages and has been read by more people than any other book.


  Ⅰ. fill in each blank:

  1. the romans were pagans, but they allowed the jews to_________ ( 实践) their faith and did not force them to _________( 信仰) roman gods.

  2. his followers came to believe that jesus was the son of the god of the jews and that he performed _________( 奇迹) .

  3. the christians taught that people’s sins would be_________ ( 宽恕) if they became christian.

  4. about fifty years after jesus died , christians _________( 组成) the stories of the life and wisdom of jesus into four books known as _________( 福音) , which means “good news”.

  5. the holy book of christianity is known as the _________( 圣经) and has two parts: the old testament and the new testament.

  Ⅱ. questions :

  what is the holy book of christianity and how many parts does it have ? what are they about?



  1. practice / worship 2 . miracles 3. forgiven 4. combined / gospels 5. bible


  the holy book of christianity is known as the bible and it has two parts. the old testament consists of the sacred writings of the jewish people and was written long before the time of jesus. the new testament of the bible includes the gospels, along with letters written by paul and other christian writers.



  居 住在耶路撒冷附近的人大多都是犹太人。罗马人虽然是异教徒, 但是他们允许犹太 人进行自己的宗教活动, 并不强 迫犹太人信奉罗马神。大约公元30 年, 一位名为耶稣的圣 人在罗马朱迪亚省城附近吸引了一大群信徒。朱迪亚是现代以色列的一部分。信徒们相 信耶稣是犹太人的上帝的儿子, 并且会创造奇迹。他们既不遵奉犹太法也不遵奉罗马法, 从而激怒了罗马*。官方逮捕了耶稣并将他钉死在十字架上。行刑后三天, 耶稣的信徒 说他们看到耶稣死后升 天了。

  耶稣的信徒称他为基 督。christ 是个希腊词, 意思为“ 被选中的人”, 因为他们相信耶 稣是被上帝选中充当信使的人。最终, 耶稣的信徒们也就成了大家所知道的基 督徒。基 督 徒教导人们如果他们成为基 督徒, 他们的罪恶就会得到宽恕。这个说法虽然对很多犹太人 没什么效果, 却让许多异教徒接受了基 督救世的思想。

  许多狂热的信徒在罗马帝国到处传播耶稣神示。最为成功的信徒之一是叫保罗的塔 尔苏斯人, 他是个说希腊语的犹太人, 也就是基 督徒们知道的圣保罗。保罗年轻时, 曾帮助迫 害基 督徒。但是有一天, 他看到了一幅幻景: 耶稣自天国对他说话。保罗倾其余生都在 思考和写基 督教方面的东西并最终皈依基 督。在保罗和其他基 督教传教士坚持不懈的努 力之下, 许多基 督教小团体在罗马帝国发展起来。

  早期的基 督徒都相信耶稣很快就会重返人间, 所以他们认为没有必要对他的生活经历 作任何书面记载。大约30 年后, 他们开始认识到记录耶稣的生平及其思想的必要性。耶 稣死后大约50 年, 基 督徒们将记录耶稣的生活和思想的内容合在一起编成四本书, 这就是 大家熟悉的《福音》。“ 福音”即“ 佳音”。基 督教的圣书是《圣经》, 它分《旧约》与《新约》两 部分。《旧约》包含记载犹太人祭祀神的文章, 写成于耶稣之前很久的年代。《新约》则包 括了《福音》及保罗和其他基 督教作者写的书信。《圣经》已经被翻译成一千多种语言, 比 其他任何书的流传都要广。


  对于西方国家, 特别是说英语的国家, 基 督教占有十分重要的地位, 是其人民的精神支 柱, 是国家文化的组成部分。所以, 要了解西方文明, 就绕不开基 督教及其经典著作《圣经》。


  1. 耶路撒冷, 地名, 是西南亚巴勒斯坦地区古城, 伊斯兰教、犹太教和基 督教的圣地, 因 此, 耶路撒冷被比作“天堂, 福地”。

  2. 这个词是“ 异教徒”的意思。它原本指“ 非基 督教徒、非犹太教徒或非伊斯兰教徒”。这 里, 根据文章的含义, 它指的是不信犹太教的人。

  3. ( 神创造的) 奇迹, 人间奇迹。它可作“ 惊人的事例, 令人惊叹的人或事物”解, 如: the bridge was a miracle of engineering. ( 这座桥是工程学上的一大奇迹。)

  4. crucify 是个与基 督教联系很紧密的词语, 它指“ 把??的手脚钉在十字架上处死”。它 所派生出的名词the crucifixion 特指“耶稣之钉死于十字架”或“ 耶稣被钉死在十字架上 的画或雕像”。

  5. 基 督, 原是耶稣的头衔: jesus the christ, 现成为其名字jesus christ 的一部分。现在世界 通用的公元纪年即是以耶稣诞生那年定为公元1 年的, 公元纪年的表示法ad 即拉丁语 anno domini 的缩写, 意思就是“耶稣纪元后( since christ was born) ”, 而大家通常所说的 “ 公元前”即bc, 也就是指耶稣诞生前, bc 是before christ 的缩写。

  6. 罗马帝国。公元前27 年到公元476 年间, 古罗马占据了整个地中海地区, 395 年分 裂为东西两部。西罗马帝国灭亡于476 年。马克思主义史学一般认为这是西欧奴隶占有制 社会历史的终结。


  he was one of the greatest scientists the world has ever known, yet if i had to convey the essence of albert einstein in a single word, i would choose simplicity. perhaps an anecdote will help. once, caught in a downpour, he took off his hat and held it under his coat. asked why, he explained, with admirable logic , that the rain would damage the hat, but his hair would be none the worse for its wetting. this knack for going instinctively to the heart of a matter was the secret of his major scientific discoveries — this and his extraordinary feeling for beauty.

  i first met albert einstein in 1935 , at the famous institute for advanced study in princeton, n. j. he had been among the first to be invited to the institute, and was offered carte blanche as to salary. to the director’s dismay, einstein asked for an impossible sum: it was far too small. the director had to plead with him to accept a larger salary.

  i was in awe of einstein, and hesitated before approaching him about some ideas i had been working on. when i finally knocked on his door, a gentle voice said, “come ”—with a rising inflection that made the single word both a welcome and a question. i entered his office and found him seated at a table, calculating and smoking his pipe. dressed in ill-fitting clothes, his hair characteristically awry , he smiled a warm welcome . his utter naturalness at once set me at ease.

  as i began to explain my ideas, he asked me to write the equations on the blackboard so he could see how they developed. then came the staggering — and altogether endearing — request:“ please go slowly. i do not understand things quickly. ”this from einstein! he said it gently, and i laughed. from then on, all vestiges of fear were gone .


  Ⅰ. fill in the blanks with proper words of the passage:

  1. if i have to describe albert einstein in a single word, i would choose_______ ( 单 纯) .

  2. caught in a_______ ( 倾盆大雨) , i have got a bad cough.

  3. in the hometown of emperor zhu yuanzhang, there are many _______ ( 轶事) about him.

  4. to my _______ ( 沮丧) , my father doesn’t buy me the walkman i like best. 5. helen keller is so strong-minded a person that i am _______ ( 敬畏) her.

  Ⅱ. questions :

  after reading this passage , do you have a new understanding of this famous person, albert einstein? if yes, then what is it?



  1. simplicity 2. downpour 3. anecdotes 4. dismay 5 . in awe of


  yes, i have a new understanding of him. i find he is not only a great scientist but also a simple man. he is polite and kind to the young people. also he is a little humorous.



  阿 尔伯特· 爱因斯坦是世界上最伟大的科学家之一, 然而如果要用一个词来形容他的 话, 那就是单纯。还是看一段他的轶事吧。一次, 爱因斯坦遇上了倾盆大雨, 他便摘下帽子 把它夹在上衣里。问他为什么这样做, 他的解释真是妙极了: 大雨会淋坏帽子, 而头发淋一 下却无伤大雅。他具有一把抓住事物核心的天赋, 而且对美有着独特的感受, 这是他探索 重大科学发现的诀窍所在。

  我第一次见阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦是1935 年, 在新泽西州普林斯顿镇的高等研究 院。他是首批被邀请到研究院工作的, 院方给予的待遇是一张签好字的空白支票。令院长 沮丧的是, 爱因斯坦的要求让你难以接受: 他索要甚少。院长不得不恳求他多索要一些薪 水。

  我敬畏爱因斯坦, 在就我所做的研究向他请教之前, 我都感到忐忑不安。最终, 我敲响 了他办公室的门,“ 进来”, 一个温柔的声音说道——— 那种升调使得这个简单的词语既表示欢 迎又含有疑问。我走进办公室, 看到他坐在桌子旁边, 一边正计算着什么, 一边还抽着烟 斗。爱因斯坦不修边幅, 头发蓬乱, 颇有特色, 他微笑着向我表示热烈欢迎。那种轻松自如 的神态, 立刻让我觉得很放松。

  我正要向他解释我的想法, 他让我把等式写在黑板上, 以便他能看清楚等式的演算过 程。然后他提了一个令人吃惊的——— 又让人喜爱的——— 请求:“ 请慢点写, 我反应慢。”这 话竟出自爱因斯坦! 他说话如此斯文, 我笑了。自那一刻起, 我对爱因斯坦一点都不觉得 害怕了。


  人们说, 一滴水中见天光, 一粒沙中看世界。爱因斯坦曾经说过:“ 照亮我的道路, 并且 不断地给我新的勇气, 去愉快地正视生活的理想的东西是真、善和美。”今天, 通过生活中的 这些点滴小事, 我们看到了他至真、至善、至美的一面。从而, 这也让我们看到了这位伟大 的科学家的人格魅力之所在。


  1. 阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦( 1879—1955) , 20 世纪最伟大的科学家之一。他出生在德国乌尔 姆, 直到3 岁才开始讲话, 他从小就对自然界充满强烈的好奇心并对数学概念有较强的 理解能力。1905 年, 爱因斯坦发表了的《狭义相对论》( special theory of relativity) , 解释了时间、空间和运动等基本自然现象之间的关系。1916 年, 他发表《广义相对论》 ( general theory of relativity) , 用公式表示能量和质量之间关系, 解释了太阳取之不尽的能 量的本质, 为原子能的发现奠定了基础。1921 年, 爱因斯坦因发现光电效应定律而获诺贝尔物理奖。他还曾参加过反战、反法西斯战争, 并反对使用核武器。

  2. 在这里是“ 本质, 实质”的意思, 和词组in essence 意思相同。essence 可作“ 精髓, 精华” 解, of the essence 引申为“极其重要的, 必不可少的”。

  3.“ 轶事, 趣闻”的意思, 指历史或名人生平中不曾发表过的秘闻。

  4. 这个词组作“并不更差, 依然如此”解, 如: i like a man none the worse for being outspoken. ( 我并不因为一个人直言不讳而讨厌他。)

  5. n. j. 是new jersey ( 新泽西州) 的缩写。princeton ( 普林斯顿) 是新泽西州中部一个自治 镇, 就是这个小镇竟被人们称为“ 学术圣地”, 原因是这里有两个高等学府: 普林斯顿大 学( university of princeton) 和普林斯顿高等研究院( princeton institute for advanced study) 。这篇文章中提到的是普林斯顿高等研究院。该研究院为了保持活力, 开学术交 流之风气, 常邀请世界各地教授到这里访问研究。他们聘请教授长则一年, 短则数月, 但 很少有终身教授。 6. 这是个法语词, 指“ 签好字的空白支票”, 引申为“全权, 自由处理权”。这里的意思是“ 爱 因斯坦想要多少工资就可以自己填上多少”。

  7. 这个词组作“敬畏”解, 常用于句型stand / be in awe of somebody 中, 如: the soldier stood in awe of the general. ( 士兵敬畏将军。)

  8.“曲的, 斜的”的意思, 一般用作表语, 既可作形容词也可作副词使用, 如: glance awry ( 斜 视) , 这里是形容词。这个词还可作“ 离开了预期或正确方向的, 错的”解, 如: 短语go / run awry 指“人背离正道, 走上邪路”, 比喻事情出岔子, 失败。


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